- Is The Speed of Light Everywhere the Same?
- Time and Consistent Relativity | Physical and Mathematical Fundamentals | Taylor & Francis Group
- Special Relativity

Tifft, a professor of astronomy at the University of Arizona: "There are several ways to answer this question. Time is always a 1-dimensional quantity in this case.

To see this we need some background information; in this scenario, time is no longer 1-dimensional! The redshift is the apparent shift in the frequency of light from distant galaxies.

This shift is toward the red end of the spectrum and its magnitude increases with distance. If redshifts were due to a simple stretching of light caused by the expansion of the universe, as is generally assumed, then they should take on a smooth distribution of values. In fact, I find that redshifts appear to take on discrete values, something that is not possible if they are simply due to the cosmic expansion.

This finding suggests that there is something very fundamental about space and time which we have not yet discovered. The energy of a photon is the product of a physical constant Planck's constant times the frequency of the light. Frequency is defined as the reciprocal of time, so if only certain redshifts are possible, then only certain energies are present, and hence only certain frequencies or, equivalently, time intervals are allowed.

To the extent that redshifts of galaxies relate to the structure of time, then, it suggests an underlying quantization. We find that the times involved are always certain special multiples of the 'Planck time,' the shortest time interval consistent with modern physical theories. The model we are working with not only predicts redshifts but also permits a calculation of the mass energies of the basic fundamental particles and of the properties of the fundamental forces.

## Is The Speed of Light Everywhere the Same?

The model implies that time, like space seems to be three dimensional. We now think that three-dimensional time may be the fundamental matrix of the universe.

In this view, fundamental particles and objects--up to the scale of whole galaxies--can be represented as discrete quantized structures of 3-d time embedded within a general matrix of 3-D time. Any given chunk, say our galaxy, is flowing outward in 3-D time along its own 1-dimensional track, a 1-D timeline. Inside our quantized chunk we sense only ordinary 3-D space, and the single 1-dimension time flow of our chunk of 3-D time.

## Time and Consistent Relativity | Physical and Mathematical Fundamentals | Taylor & Francis Group

The flow of time that you sense corresponds to the flow of our chunk of 3-D time through the general matrix of 3-D time. This time is probably not quantized. Both ordinary space and ordinary 'operational' time can be continuous. On the other hand, the structure of the time intervals frequencies and energies that make up the 3-D chunks of time which we call galaxies or fundamental particles does appear to be quantized in units connected to the Planck scale. In the 3-D time model, space is a local entity.

Galaxies are separated in 3-D time, which we have misinterpreted as separation in space. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Mohammad Reza Pahlavani.

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### Special Relativity

Downloaded: Introduction 1. More Print chapter. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard. Cite this chapter Copy to clipboard Jehonathan Bentwich May 13th Available from:. Over 21, IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Suggest a book topic Books open for submissions.

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